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City and regional planning

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Fachhochschule Flensburg - FH

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Text by Reinhold N. ©
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Offshore Windparks


Generel information about the existing and planned offshore wind parks

The first offshore wind park was build 1991 in Denmark and is called “Vindeby”. It includes 11 wind energy plants (WEP) which produce 5MW. In the years from 1994-2002 the most offshore wind parks were build in Denmark and Sweden. Since 2003 the most offshore wind parks are built by Great Britain.

Up to now, almost every offshore wind park was build in Europe. There is only one outside from Europe. This one is in Japan and includes just 2 WEPs which produce 1,2 MW.

Besides the existing offshore wind parks are several others, which are under construction. The most interesting offshore wind parks, for us, are the 3 which are build in Germany.

1.    Alpha Ventus (Expected completion is 2009)

2.    BARD Offshore I (Expected completion is 2010)

3.    Baltic 1 (Expected Completion is 2011)

Furthermore are another 40 offshore wind parks planned in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Germany. The Exclusive Economic Zone is the area in which a state has special privileges. That means, in this case, that a state can build offshore wind parks in a distance from the own coast up to 200 nautical miles across the sea.

In the North Sea are much more wind parks build and planned as in the Baltic Sea because there is a stronger and more constant wind.

Examples for offshore wind parks

Nysted Havmollepark

The Nysted Havmollepark , also known as Rodsand I, is currently on of the largest offshore wind parks in the world. It contains 72 WEPs, each of them produce about 2,3 MW and the entire wind park produce 166MW. In comparison with the “Vindeby”, the first offshore wind park, it’s a quiet good improvement.

The 72 wind turbines annually generate enough power to supply 145,000 family homes. Each WEP is 69 meter high and the rotor blades have a length of 41 meter. And because of this extreme height, the turbines are fitted with lights. 6 of the outer turbines have white, synchronous flashing lights on top, while the remaining turbines have a weaker, constant, red light.

This is a precaution for the aviation.


Alpha Ventus

The Alpha Ventus is the first offshore wind park in Germany. The finalization is planned for the end of 2009. This wind park consists of 2 different types of WEPs, the REpower 5M and the Multibrid M5000. The REpower is 92 meter high and the rotor blades have a length of 63 meter. The Multibrid M5000 is 90 meter high and has 58 meter long rotor blades.

Collectively there are 12 WEPs, both types produce a time 5MW. From this it follows that the entire park produce 60MW. At a test in August 2009 Alpha Ventus supplies the first kilowatt hours to the German power grid. The 12 wind turbines will annually generate enough power to supply 50,000 family homes.

In Comparison to other wind parks, the distance from the coast to the Alpha Ventus is quiet long. Its located 45km away from the island Borkum.

Advantages and disadvantages

Advantages:

-       The wind on offshore is stronger and more constant as on land. From this it follows, that the WEPs can produce more and constant energy

Disadvantages:

-       The Construction and the service are more complex and expensive as on land, because you need ships and helicopters

-       Ships has to bypass the wind park


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